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Study Material For RRB Exam: General Knowledge (G.K.) - History: Modern Indian History

Study Material For RRB Exam - General Knowledge

Section : History

Modern Indian History

The period from 1707 AD, the year when Aurangzeb died, to 1857, the year of the Indian uprising. saw the gradual increase of the European influence in India. The Europeans had been filtering into India for a long time before they actually decided to set up shop here. Even though the British got away with the jackpot. the real pioneers to reach India were the Portuguese.

Portuguese Rule

The Portuguese settled down to a very prosperous trade in spices with India. The Muslim rulers in Delhi and then the Mughals never really warmed up to the idea of a foreign power continuing trade on the seas under their imperial noses. What’s more, they were not exactly very honest traders too, since they thought that no word that was given to an infidel need be kept.

Advent of Dutch

The Dutch came shipping in the East for the first time in 1595. However, they did not come to India initially, and established themselves at the helm of things in the spice trade in Jakarta. India carne into the picture for them purely as a route to Europe, as part of a great Asian trade route that they developed which went through Ceylon and Cape Town. Although the Dutch had their factories dotting all over in Cochin, Nagapatam and even up in Agra) they did not attempt to gain military power, being quite content to gain in cash.

French Invaders

Although the French King Locus XII had granted letters of monopoly to French traders in 1611, it was not until December 1667, that a French company was actually set up in India. This was at Surat (in Gujrat) with Francis Caron as its Director-General. Soon, in 1669, another French company came up in Masulipatnam, thanks to a grant by the king of Golconda. which exempted the French from paying import and export duty.

English Formed East India Company

The English, formed their East India Company on the last day of 1600 and entered the East India hand in hand with the Dutch. Their foes were common-the Portuguese and Catholic Spain and this brought them closer. However, familiarity breeds contempt, and soon the English realized that the Dutch were not willing to share their space in Spice Islands (East India) with them.

First War of Independence

Also called the Sepoy Muting or the Revolt of 1857. On 29 March 1857, during the vice-royalty of Lord Canning. an Indian Sepoy of the 34th regiment, Mangal Pandey, killed two British affairs en Parade at Barrackpore. The Indian Soldier’s Present on Parade refused to obey orders to arrest Mangal Pandey. However, he was latter arrested, and hanged.

Important of the Revolt:

  • The revolt was mainly feudal in character carrying with it some nationalist elements.
  • The control of Indian administration was passed on the British crown by the Government of India Act 1858.
  • The army was carefully recognized to present the recruitment of such as event.

British Governor Generals and Viceroys of India

Bengal Governor General

  • Warren Hastings (1772-1785)
  •  Lord Cornwallis (1786-1793)
  •  Lord Wellesley (1798-1805)

 Governor Generals of India

  •  Lord william Bentinck (1828-1835)
  •  Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856)
  •  Lord Canning (1856-1862)
  •  Lord Mayo (1869-1872)
  •  Lord Lytton (1876-1880)
  •  Lord Ripon (1380-1884)
  •  Lord Minto (1905-1910)
  •  Lord Hardinge (1910-1916)
  •  Lord Chelmsford (1116-1921)
  •  Lord Reading (1921-1926)
  •  Lord Iraon (1926-1931)
  •  Lord Willingdon (1931-1936)
  •  Lord Linlithgow (1936-1944)
  •  Lord Wavell (1944-1947)
  •  Lord Mounthatten (March 1947-August 1947)

Important National Activities

  • The Indian National Congress
  • Partition of Bengal
  • Swadeshi Movement (1905)
  • Formation of Muslim League (1906)
  • Demand for Swaraj
  • Surat Session of Indian National Congress (1907)
  • Indian Councils Act or Minto Morley Reforms (1909)
  • Ghadar Party (1913)
  • Home Rule Movement (1916)
  • Lucknow Pact (1916)
  • August Declaration (1917)
  • Rowlatt Act (March 18, 1919)
  • Jallianwala Bagh Massacre (April 13, 1919)
  • Khilafat Movement (1920)
  • Non-cooperation Movement (1920)
  • Chauri-Chaura Incident (1922)
  • Simon Commission (1927)
  • Lahore Session (1929)
  • Dandi March (1930)

Newspaper journals

Newspaper/journal                            Founder/Editor
• Bengal Gazette (1780)                       J.K. Hikki
(India’s first newspaper)
• Kesari                                      B.G. Tilak
• Maharatta 				      B.G. Tilak
Sudharak                                      G.K. Gokhale
• Amrita Bazar Patrika               Sisir Kumar Ghosh and Motilal Ghosh
• Vande Mataram                              Aurobindo Ghosh
• Native Opinion                              V.N. Mandalik
• Kavivachan Sudha                        Bhartendu Harishchandra
• Rast Gottar Dadabhai Naoroji
(First new. paper in Gujarati)
• Irniia (Weekly) Bipin Chandra Pal
• Staiesman                                   Robert Knight
• Hindu                                Vir Raghavacharya and G.S.Aiyar
• Sanadhya                                    B.B. Upadhyaya
• Vii bar Lahiri                          Krishnashastri Chiplunkar

Venue, Year and Presidents of Indian National Congress (INC)

Year             Venue                        President
1885, 1882     Bombay, Allahabad             W.C. Bannerji
1886            Calcutta                    Dadabhai Naoroji
1893            Lahore                      Dadabhai Naoroji
1906            Calcutta                    Dadabhai Naoroji
1887            Madras               Badruddin Tyyabji (first Muslim President)
1888            Allahabad            George Yule (first English President)
1889            Bombay                   Sir William Wedderburn
1890            Calcutta                   Sir Feroze S. Mehta
1895, 1902      Poona, Ahmedabad           S. N. Banerjee
1905             Banaras                   G. K. Gokhale
1907, 1908       Surat, Madras             Rasbehari Ghosh
1909             Lahore                    M. M. Malviya
1916             Lucknow             A. C. Majumdar (Re-union of the Congress)
1917             Calcutta            Anne Besant (first Woman President)
1919             Amritsar                  Motilal Nehru
1920             Calcutta (sp.session)     Lala Lajpat Rai
1921, 1922       Ahmedabad, Gaya           C.R. Das
1923             Delhi (sp.session)    Abdul Kalam Azad (youngest President)
1924             Belgaon                   M. K. Gandhi
1925             Kanpur              Sarojini Naidu (first Indian Woman President)
1928             Calcutta             Motilal Nehru (first All India Youth Congress Formed)
1929             Lahore               J. L. Nehru (Poorna Swaraj resolution was passed)
1931             Karachi              Vallabhbhai Patel (Here, resolution on Fundamental rights
                                     and the National Economic Program was passed)
1932, 1933       Delhi, Calcutta           (Session Banned)
1934             Bombay                    Rajendra Prasad
1936             Lucknow                    J. L. Nehru
1937             Faizpur            J. L. Nehru (first session in a village)
1938             Haripura          S. C. Bose (a National Planning Commission set-up under J. L. Nehru)
1939             Tripuri           S. C. Bose was re-elected but had to resign due to protest by 
                                   Gandhi ji (as Gandhiji supported Dr. Pattabhi Sitaramayya). 
                                        Rajendra Prasad was appointed in his place.
1940              Ramgrah                  Abdul Kalam Azad
1946              Meerut                   Acharya J. B. Kriplani
1948              Jaipur                   Dr Pattabhi Sitarmayya

Important Books of Freedom Struggle Era

Book                                               Author
Causes of the Indian Mutiny                    Sir Syyed Ahmed Khan
Ghulam Giri                                      Jotiba Phule
To All Fighters of Freedom, Why Socialism?       J. P. Narayan
Problems of the East                             Lord Curzon
My Indian Yeas                                   Lord Hardinge II
Economic History of India                        R.C. Dutt
Pather Panchali                                  Bibhuti Shushan Boner
The Spirit of Islam                              Syyed Ameer Ali
Precepts of Jesus                                Ram Mohan Roy
A Gift of Monotheists                            Ram Mohan Roy
Satyarth Prakash                                 Swami Dayanand
Anand Math                                       Bankim C. Chatterji
Devi Chaudharani                                 Bankim C. Chatterji
Sitaram                                          Bankim C. Chatterji
The Indian Struggle                              S. C. Bose
Poverty & Un-British Rule in India               Dadabhai Naoroji
The Spirit of Islam                              Syyed Ameer Ali
A Nation in the Making                           S. N. Banerji
Unhappy India                                    Lala Lajpat Rai
The Indian War of Indeendence                    V. D. Savarkar
India Divided                                    Rajendra Prasad
The Discovery of India                           J. L. Nehru
Neel Darpan                                      Dinbandhu Mitre
Hind Swaraj                                      M. K. Gandhi
What Congress and Gandhi have done the untouchables B. R. Ambedkar

Important Battles of World History

Battle                Period/Year                  Countries Involved
Battle of Megiddo       608 BC            Necho of Egypt and Josiah of Judsh; Egyptians victorious
Battle of Marathon      490 BC            Athenians and Persians; King Darius of Persia defeated.
Battle of Thermopylae   480 BC            Spartans led by Leonidas and Persians by Xerxes; Spartans were defeated.
Battle of Salamis       480 BC            Athenian and Persian fleet in the Bay of Salamis; Persian fleet defeated
Battle of Platae        479BC             Greek and Persian forces; Persian forces defeated.
Battle of Mycale        479 BC            Greek and Persian forces; Persian fleet defeated.
Spartan War I           459 BC            Sparta and Athenes, also called ‘Pelponesian War’: it lasted for 30 years.
Spartan War II        431 – 421 BC        Sparta and Athenes; Spartans victorious
Battle of Arabia       331 BC             Greek and Persian forces; Greeks victorious.
Battle of Magnesia     190 BC             Syrian and Roman forces; Syrian forces defeated (north-west Lydia).
Hundred Year War     1337 – 1453          France and England
War of Roses         1455 – 1485          Civil War in England between the two rival royal houses of Lancaster and 
                                          York; White and red rose were their respective symbols.
Anglo-Spanish War     1588                Spanish and English fleets fought in the English Channel; Defeat of the Spanish fleet.
Thirty Year War      1618 – 1648          Started as religious-cum-political war between (Conto) the Lutherans 
                                          and Catholics in Germany and developed into an international war.
Civil War of England 1642 – 1649          Between Cavaliers (King Charles supporters) and forces of the Parliament 
                                          led by Oliver Cromwell; King Charles I executed.

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